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National Park Piatra Craiului Overview:

Although it does not reach the height or massive Parâng or Fagaras Mountains, Piatra Craiului National Park, however, the composition was entirely of limestone ridge in elegance, the lattices worked like a jeweler’s hand, the monumental rocky walls, made everything seem worth a jeweler by numerous and rich forests to its feet, is for lovers of natural beauty, a superlative domain. The variety and diversity of rocks and limestone walls, a benefit in the same way as flora and fauna.

Location and limits

Piatra Craiului lies between the coordinates 45 ° 22’03 “45 ° 35’11” north latitude and 25 ° 07’38 “and 25 ° 23’18” east longitude, in Romania. The southwestern limit of the Brasov Depression (Barsa), rises in stately near Zarnesti town , whose sharp ridge, is one of the most beautiful sights of the mountains of Romania. It is a special appearance in the landscape of our mountains because they are the only solid that emerges across the general direction of the Carpathians. The first action to protect the National Park dating from 1938, when the Journal of the Council of Ministers (645/1938), National Park Nature Reserve was established in the area of 440 hectares, “due to the unique nature of the massif where rare species are found as: Dianthus callizonus, Hesperis nivea, Minuatia Transylvania Leontopodium alpinum, but because of its beauty and landscape. ” Protected area has increased successively until 1990, when, by order Nr.7/1990 Ministry of Water, Forests and Environmental Protection, Piatra Craiului National Park is mentioned as a protected area along with 12 other parks in Romania, a status that is supported by environmental law ( Law Nr. 137/1995). Protected area is approximately 2,600 ha reserve is full and 5500 ha buffer zone. These areas cover only forest, are protected by forest planning of the two districts: Zarnesti and Rucar.

Cai access

Due to rapid access to next lap, the massive National Park is a tourist area where you can easily reach through various ways such as rail-line access is secondary Zarnesti Brasov (27 km) by train staff. -On the road access is done in several directions:-Contact is made between Brasov and Zarnesti Rasnov DN 73 to 73A and the way in Rasnov until Zarnesti (28 Km). -Link to bridge the Dambovita and Campulung Dambovicioara is -29 km to the Dambovita River bridge, 34 km to 40 km to Dambovicioara and Brusuturet-link from point of Ivan Cojocar-Valley is in Campulung the Dambovita Rucar-40 Bridge Campulung Km and 12 Km from the bridge Dambovita. Towns and access points are located at the foot of the mountain making trips can be made quickly and safely because its location near the mountain rescue points traseelor.Dintre these localities include: city-county Zarnesti Brasov, 722 m altitude, common Bran – Brasov, 752 m altitude, common Moeciu Down – Brasov county, 805m altitude, the village Sirnea – Brasov, 1150 m altitude, Dambovita Bridge – Arges county, 730 m altitude, Dambovicioara – Arges county, 850 m altitude, Fund – County Brasov, 1270 m alt., Cojocaru, Ivan Arges Valley, 860m alt.

Geography and Relief

Piatra Craiului National Park stands out as a sharp geographic unit, being surrounded by areas of depression, Rucar-Bran Corridor Corridor Tamas, with heights ranging between 1000 – 1200 m. The massif has the appearance of a prominent backs directed the NE – SW and the slightly crooked Little Rock begins in the middle than going down in fields and wooded toplitele the side of the city and ends in the last Pietricica southern slopes down to the confluence with the Dambovita Dambovicioarei. In terms of tourism are included Bran and from Magura and Toarches Little yellow stone and ending with the mountain, near the village Dambovicioara. This mountain area is an invitation addressed to lovers of hiking, to start with confidence in this corner of the Carpathians universe with images hard to forget and secular customs and traditions. Geographical Limits: In general, Massif, located, as we know, in the extreme south-west of Barsa depression (NW) and Dambovita (to SV) and on the eastern side, between High River valley (NE) Dambovicioarei and the SE. Western side: For NV, Barsa Mare River valley, dominated by steep rocky slope of the western mountains separating massive Persian (Poiana platform) and Taga Mountains. To the west and southwest, Dambovita River valley separates the massif Iezer National Park – doll. On the western side put out an aisle located on the NE-SW direction, called passage Tamas lane that separates the Fagaras Mountains. Peak Tamas, located on the main ridge of the Carpathians, has the lowest elevation in Curmatura Saddle Road (1375 m). East side: toward the east-Bran Corridor Rucar depression separates the mountains Bucegi Mountains (east) and Leaota (southeast). Massif is separated from the peak Toanches – Coja-corner leaks (peak belonging Bran platform) through the valleys of two rivers. For U.S. and still Vladusca River Great River National Park separated by ridges and Magura Toanches Minor. Spree Mountain National Park is separated from the Yellow Stone by a single river valley, but which, from its origin to the mouth Dambovita, bears three names, namely: the Dry Valley of Stones, and Dambivicioara BRUSTURET. It – along these valleys corridor highlights Dambovicioara – Zarnesti. Taking into account the natural boundaries of the relief, the massive National Park is divided into three distinct units, namely: Little Rock, National Park (National Park Great) and Pietricica. -Little Rock is oriented WNW-ESE direction and immediately raises its wooded slopes near the town of Zarnesti and offers a beautiful view over the city and the Barsa depression. Being atop the rounded shape and covered with juniper trees, Little Rock has a modest height (1816 m) separated from the rest of the deep mountain saddle Pietrii Curmatura Mountains – 1620 m and a girl Magura Bran narrow gorge of the River Great Zarnestilor. – National Park (Great National Park) is the main form of the massive relief. It has a simple geological Composition, consisting of an isolated and singled ridge, oriented NE-SW direction, here is the biggest lying massive altitudes. Ridge is bordered by the eastern slope and western and northwestern slopes. Great National Park – itself back whose maximum elevation is the peak point in humans, being carried on top of Tower 1 923 m by 300 m high extending over the SV Curmaturii culminating in a series of peaks from 2100 to 2200 average m: Ascutit peak 2155m, Great Timbalul 2157 m, 2231 m Timbalul Breakfast, brutes 2220m peak, peak at 2238 m man, Grindu 2229 m, 2216 m long mane, Stone Lespezi top 2127 m 2086 m, 1951 m Bottoms. -Pietricica ridge extending the southern ridge of the saddle from going through the Bottoms: The burn 1853 m, 1764 m Pietricica, Miri Gruiul 1582 m, 1241 m Under Pietricica, Great Plaiul 1297 m, 1172 m and ending Plaic northern basin Podu Dambovita, at the confluence of the Dambovita Dambovicioara by limestone bridges Plaiul Great Plaicul. Travel, Pietricica not have any trail. To use the trail crosses the ridge we Pietricica pastoral unmarked (Plaiul Pietricica) that begins and ends in Saddle Bottoms Podu Dambovita after approx. 6:00. Higher slopes of Pietrii Mountains backs looks opposite shows representing one of the geography of the mountain, as the east is slightly inclined slope and dressed in a robe of the pastoral vegetation down to the upper limit of forests at the foot of the mountain slopes while NV offers sunset and gaze a steep vertical inclination and extends to about the Tower next to the saddle south Bottoms scoring level differences 200 – 600 meters. Being extremely steep terrain that is the main ornament of the mountain, he became a principal site of climbing performance.

Geology

Among all types of terrain present on Earth’s surface, karst topography enjoys a remarkable reputation by special attraction exerted on us. This limestone massif Piatra Craiului resulted in the emergence of a particularly spectacular karst terrain. This relief, developed on Mesozoic limestones, is widespread throughout the Piatra Craiului, but is large in the south, in the surroundings of Bridge Dambovita depression. Karst phenomena themselves (gorges, caves, ravines, sinkholes, springs) were both formed at the base and platform limestone scarp of Bran. Another feature of the Rock Mountains is a massive limestone that is most pronounced stratification of the limestone in Romania. Attracted massive attention from all around the edges impressive as “Great Organ” situated Brana Goat, a ridge over 100 feet tall too stratified, with layers turned upside down to 120 degrees. Also in this valley can not overlook towers located at 200 Diana m altitude above the refuge of the same name. Also needle Valley crack crack, Padina His finger’s Calinet Calinet, Belt Cioranga with Cioranga Canyon limestone formations are of great interest not only geological but also because here are some of the most difficult climbing routes in the country. Bizarre shapes such as needles, spears, abound throughout length of causing the ridge to look deoboseala tourist or they can remember Caldarea cotidian.Dintre stress is inevitable, the amphitheater in Padina Sindileriei, Cioranga Great Valley, shoulders Pietrii Mountains, Red Belt, or at fence. Taken together Masi National Park Karst is a vast territory, a great monument of nature in the broad sense of the word, because only proper appearance or the many and varied but specific karst geological phenomena, resulting from the break of this limestone which favored the most diverse of this nature: caves, springs, caves, gorges, saw the debris, arches, windows, walls. At the end of 1981, 161 were classified in the mountain caves, of which 158 formed in limestone, and 3 in the conglomerates. Of the numerous caves remark: Bears-Cave (850 m) is located in the Dambovita Small Gorges. Today the cave is put under the care and closed the metal door. Dambovicioarei-Cave (870 m) is located in Cave Valley Gorge Dambovicioarei, affordable car. Cave-bats (950 m) is located in the east village on the slope of Cave Hill Church, is populated with a large colony of bats. Grind-pit below the peak (1700 m) is the deepest well in the country (-515 m) and No. 8 in world ranking of the deep underground water network. -Pit of Vladusca (1680 m) is developed in Cretaceous conglomerates and has a depth of 83 m-pit of the Dambovita Grind-Small Gorges (Gorges Plaiului) have a wild and imposing aspect is accessible vehicles. BRUSTURET-Gorge-Gorge-Gorge Dambovicioarei Prapastiile Zarnestilor is a spectacular gorge over 200 m high walls, springs, arches, towers of limestone caves, saw the debris. A great scientific importance is the three avens Grindului area they represent an excellent geographic profile of 500 m depth, which will certainly provide a number of clarifications and even new data on stratigraphy, tectonics and Stone Park. The presence of this geographically large underground hole in the ridge where the watercourses are missing, is a compelling milestone in supporting the hypothesis of the existence of glaciers in the Piatra Craiului National Park, the much controversial literature. The most famous cave is near the tusks Chiliilor (anexa2), because there’s still the fifteenth century, refugees from the invaded Turkish residents have “transformed” cave church. The shrine located in the finals of the caves can be admired by every tourist. By far the best known of the massive karst phenomena are the keys that due to their length of over 5 km (Dambovicioarei, Zarnestiului) and requires the walls up to 200 meters making it enchants tourists to return. Geomorphology Stone Mountains individuality suggests that massive, massive limestone is the only country with the highest slopes of the 2000m and prone to over 35 degrees. mentions in particular the western slope, which, by appearance or very specific, it must be as representative of the relief, rating specialists synthesized by the notion of “National Park slope type” with the highest density of waste forms (edges, fangs , towers, pyramids, etc.). that in the absence of vegetation and soil, increase the “wilderness” and the picturesque slope, many of them are unique morphology, which deserves to be declared protected natuni

River Network

Massif has a constitution mainly limestone, this being characterized by the impossibility of rising water retention. It is worth noting that over 1200-1400 m, all of which cross the mountain valleys are completely devoid of water, water being the only valley on the outskirts of the massif. Valleys belong to different basins: Basin-Olt: Barsa Mare Mare River;-Basin Dambovita: Dambovita and Dambovicioara;-Streams on marked trails;-Streams unmarked routes. Dambovita Upper Stone Mountains delimit the geographic area of more than 20 km avad a number of tributaries on the left starting with the tributary Tămaşului Valley Spring Valley Dragaslavenilor Otetelii then why spring is born from the union with Padina Tamaselului lance. Dambovicioara is deepened through the valley where BRUSTURET shows a rich network of valleys with water. Moecilui Zbarcioara with Valley Valley and Simon give birth Turkish hard rock cut keys in the middle of Bran. Its tributaries Magura Valley, Valley Nan Corbosestilor Valley, Valley Valley Rogoazei Dick ssi.

Climate

Climate elements known in Massif, as in most of the Carpathian mountain massifs, the same appearance bioclimatic floors. There is, however, local particularities imposed by the configuration of relief. Witnessed a gradual decrease in air temperature from foot to mountain ridges. The annual average at the foot of the mountain is 2-4 ° C and about 0 ° C in areas of high ridge. Sunny winter days without wind phenomenon of thermal inversion occurs when cold air descends on the increase in depression on the ridge so the temperature is higher than in neighboring valleys. after heavy snowfalls in the alpine zone of the ridge often form avalanches. Therefore, in the winter, from October to April, is forbidden crossing routes and steep ridge. Winds are an important factor because high rises strongly backs corridors between two depressions. On the main ridge altitude currents circulate only variations in intensity and direction. Cloud is a relatively high annual average cloudy days is of 180-200 days and the clear sky at least 80 days. In this area stands out in the sea of clouds some days calm winter peaks most prominent on the ridge to appear as some rocky islands. Quantitative rainfall reaching an annual average of 1000-1200 mm sleet and snow that covers about 50%. The rains are more abundant in May-June and lowest in autumn. The less snowfall in February and March are and during the summer rain showers are accompanied by lightning.

flora, fauna, monuments and nature reserves

Tourists, started from the foot, the heights ridge running through all floors of existing vegetation in mountainous area of our country (spruce forest floor, floor subalpine, alpine). Forests are comprised of: beech compact, mixed beech and fir wood, isolated clusters at the heights 800-1400 m yew, spruce stands compact junipers juniper over 1400m. Massif is the result of species richness in highly varied conditions that they provide the plant world development. Exceeding 2200m altitude makes almost the entire group of species characteristic of montane and alpine Carpathian chain, to find optimal conditions for development. 1678 in the mountain known plant species, botanists are still interested in his flora of 1850 when they were first found endemisme.Printre rare species can be mentioned:-Garofita Stone Mountains (Dionthus Callizonus) symbol of the massive floral endemism strictly local yet known because only National Park, fly-mountain (Geronium Coerulatum) present only in the National Park and Bucegi-Tisa (Taxus baccata), bison (Pinnus cembra), Edelweiss (Leonbopodium alpinum)-Glintura Yellow (Gentiana lutea)-Blood Hale (Nigritela rubra)-juniper (Pyrrhus montana), mountain peony (Rhododendron Kotschy)-Tulnicul (Trollius europaeus) Pietrii Fauna Mountains holds one third of all large carnivores (bear, wolf, lynx) in Europe. Like vegetation, fauna Mountains Stone knows a vertical natural setting, being influenced by temperature and humidity, but areas where animals carry on their lives are wider and less conturate.Dintre Mountain National Park found in animals include: red-goat or deer (capuolus capuolus), chamois (Rupicapra Rupicapra), brown bear (Ursus arctos), lynx (Lynx lynxs), wolf (Canis lupus), wild boar (nis scrifa)-fox (Canis vulpes). -Squirrels (sciurus vu1garis)-common viper (Vipera berus), trout (Salmo trutta Faria) Of Flying can remember:-grouse (Tetrao derysaetos)-pecker (Dendrocopus bucotus), blackbird (Turdus alpestris) Rock-Thrush (deonticola saxatillis).

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